Hainaut is the westernmost province of Wallonia. It has a surface area of 3800 km², a population of 1,287,000 inhabitants, and is divided into seven administrative districts, Ath, Charleroi, Mon, Mouscron, Soignies, Thuin and Tournai. It borders on the Belgian provinces of West Flanders, East Flanders, Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Namur and France. The capital is Mons.
Hainaut is low-lying, except in the southeast and has considerable productive farmland where wheat, grains, sugar beets, and dairy cattle are raised. Manufactures include chemicals and electrical equipment. The province is drained by the Scheldt, Dender, and Sambre rivers and is served by a dense rail network and the Charleroi-Brussels Canal. Hainaut has both a rural and urban character. Apart from Charleroi, the main cities all have a provincial air about them.